(Internet English Version)

Jorge Gumucio Granier Ph.D.*


"The geographic situation of Bolivia requires in any case an access to the Pacific."

Walter Blaine,
May 8th, 1882


"Our hope is that Bolivia, Chile and Perú would be able to reach an agreement with regard to a corridor that would allow Bolivia to have a direct access to the sea through Bolivian territory."

Jimmy Carter,
September 8th, 1977


* Bolivian Diplomat; Lawyer graduated at Law School, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés-La Paz; holds a doctoral degree from University of Pittsburgh; is Correspondent Member of the Academies of History of Argentina, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Peru, Spain and Puerto Rico.

Copyright 1986,1997.Jorge Gumucio Granier






Chapter 1. Territoriality and Sovereignty in South America's West Coast. Reports from Commissioner Joel R. Pointsett. Reports from Commissioner Theodorick Bland. Reports of Special Agent W.C.D. Worthington. O’Higgins was familiar with the Boundaries of Chile. Correspondence at the Inception of Republican Life. US Navy visits Bolivian Seacoast. Report from Lieutenant Ruschenberger. Herndon and Gibbon Exploration. The Astronomic Expedition of the US Navy to the Southerm Hemisphere. Arica. Invasion of Gamarra and the Battle of Ingavi. American Diplomatic recognition of the Arica-Bolivia Relation. On the Eve of the Pacific War.

Chapter 2. The Emergence of Conflict. The Case of the Sportsman. The role of Private Interests in International Relations: New Provocation from the Chilean Armed Forces. Declaration of War in 1863 and the Refusal of Arbitration. New Disputes between Bolivia and Chile over new mineral rights.

Chapter 3. The Escalation of Conflict: The War of the Pacific (1879-1884). Information sent to Washington on the Chilean Invasion. Chile’s Expansionist Policies and Minister Pettis’ Mediation. American Mediation: Peace Talks on the Lackawanna. Chile asks for American Intervention in the Matter of the Exchange of Prisoners. A Bolivian Proposal for Economic Compensation to Chile through American Companies. Preserving American Hegemony: The Secretary of State, Mr. James G. Blaine. The U.S. State Department consents to the Maneuvers of Chile. The Truce of 1884 as a Decoy to divide Bolivia and Peru.

Chapter 4. Chile's One-Party Settlement: Bolivian Confinement. Bolivia is locked. Antofagasta: Bolivia’s Port. The 1895 Treaties. Argentina and the Atacama’s Puna. Koning’s ultimatum. The United States advises Chile on freedom of transit for Bolivia. The 1904 Treaty. Alsop & Co. Claim.

Chapter 5. Conflict's New Dimension: Bolivia Seeks U.S. Participation. Memorandum from the Minister of Foreign Affairs Sanchez Bustamante.

Chapter 6. Conflict between Interests of the Core and Interests of the Periphery. The Paris Peace Conference. Bolivia insists on Arica. Peru is opposed, and Chile waits. Bolivia presents its case to the League of Nations.

Chapter 7. Third Party Settlement: U.S. Arbitration Between Chile and Peru Excluding Bolivia  The Washington Conference. Bolivia asks the United States to act on its behalf in a mission of goodwill with Chile. From the Thwarted Plebiscite to the Kellog Proposal.

Chapter 8. Partial Conflict Resolution: U.S. Sponsors Negotiations that Consecrate Bolivia's Confinement. Peru seeks a port in Arica. Relations between Chile and Bolivia deteriorate. The Secret Protocol concealed from Hoover.

Chapter 9. Bolivia's Claim finds Hemispheric Legitimacy but the Conflict Persists. President Roosevelt’s support of the Internationalization of the Port of Arica. Senator Vandenberg and the San Francisco Conference. President Truman and an outlet to the sea. The Department of State understands the problem, but does not share President Truman’s enthusiasm. The Bolivian Revolution and hopes in Kennedy. The Moscoso proposal. Bolivia’s absence in the hemispheric conclave. Bolivia’s confinement is a hemispheric problem. The Banzer-Pinochet negotiations. Carter supports the Bolivian cause. Reagan supports hemispheric consensus. Update.

Chapter 10. Summary and Conclusion.

Index of Maps.

Map of Peru and Bolivia (1833)
Map of Peru and Bolivia (1856)