|UNITED STATES AND THE BOLIVIAN SEACOAST
Jorge Gumucio Granier Ph.D.*
"The geographic situation of Bolivia requires in any
case an access to the Pacific."
May 8th, 1882
"Our hope is that
Bolivia, Chile and Perú would be able to reach an agreement with regard to a corridor
that would allow Bolivia to have a direct access to the sea through Bolivian
September 8th, 1977
* Bolivian Diplomat; Lawyer graduated at
Law School, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés-La Paz; holds a doctoral degree from
University of Pittsburgh; is Correspondent Member of the Academies of History of
Argentina, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Peru, Spain and Puerto Rico.
Copyright 1986,1997.Jorge Gumucio Granier
Chapter 1. Territoriality and Sovereignty in South America's West Coast. Reports from
Commissioner Joel R. Pointsett. Reports from Commissioner Theodorick Bland. Reports of
Special Agent W.C.D. Worthington. OHiggins was familiar with the Boundaries of
Chile. Correspondence at the Inception of Republican Life. US Navy visits Bolivian
Seacoast. Report from Lieutenant Ruschenberger. Herndon and Gibbon Exploration. The
Astronomic Expedition of the US Navy to the Southerm Hemisphere. Arica. Invasion of
Gamarra and the Battle of Ingavi. American Diplomatic recognition of the Arica-Bolivia
Relation. On the Eve of the Pacific War.
Chapter 2. The
Emergence of Conflict. The Case of the Sportsman. The
role of Private Interests in International Relations: New Provocation from the Chilean
Armed Forces. Declaration of War in 1863 and the Refusal of Arbitration. New Disputes
between Bolivia and Chile over new mineral rights.
3. The Escalation of Conflict:
The War of the Pacific (1879-1884). Information sent
to Washington on the Chilean Invasion. Chiles Expansionist Policies and Minister
Pettis Mediation. American Mediation: Peace Talks on the Lackawanna. Chile asks for
American Intervention in the Matter of the Exchange of Prisoners. A Bolivian Proposal for
Economic Compensation to Chile through American Companies. Preserving American Hegemony:
The Secretary of State, Mr. James G. Blaine. The U.S. State Department consents to the
Maneuvers of Chile. The Truce of 1884 as a Decoy to divide Bolivia and Peru.
Chapter 4. Chile's One-Party Settlement: Bolivian Confinement. Bolivia is
locked. Antofagasta: Bolivias Port. The 1895 Treaties. Argentina and the
Atacamas Puna. Konings ultimatum. The United States advises Chile on freedom
of transit for Bolivia. The 1904 Treaty. Alsop & Co. Claim.
5. Conflict's New Dimension: Bolivia Seeks
U.S. Participation. Memorandum from
the Minister of Foreign Affairs Sanchez Bustamante.
Chapter 6. Conflict
between Interests of the Core and Interests of the Periphery. The Paris Peace
Conference. Bolivia insists on Arica. Peru is opposed, and Chile waits. Bolivia presents
its case to the League of Nations.
Chapter 7. Third
Party Settlement: U.S. Arbitration Between Chile and Peru Excluding Bolivia The
Washington Conference. Bolivia asks the United States to act on its behalf in a mission of
goodwill with Chile. From the Thwarted Plebiscite to the Kellog Proposal.
Chapter 8. Partial Conflict Resolution: U.S. Sponsors Negotiations that
Consecrate Bolivia's Confinement. Peru seeks a port in Arica. Relations between Chile and Bolivia deteriorate. The
Secret Protocol concealed from Hoover.
Chapter 9. Bolivia's
Claim finds Hemispheric Legitimacy but the Conflict Persists. President Roosevelts support of the Internationalization of the Port of
Arica. Senator Vandenberg and the San Francisco Conference. President Truman and an outlet
to the sea. The Department of State understands the problem, but does not share President
Trumans enthusiasm. The Bolivian Revolution and hopes in Kennedy. The Moscoso
proposal. Bolivias absence in the hemispheric conclave. Bolivias confinement
is a hemispheric problem. The Banzer-Pinochet negotiations. Carter supports the Bolivian
cause. Reagan supports hemispheric consensus. Update.
10. Summary and Conclusion.
Map of Peru
and Bolivia (1833)
Map of Peru and Bolivia (1856)